Cattle Disease Information And Guide

Vaccination is a key part of commercial Dairy Farming. Here we are showing the list of Cattle disease and their treatment and prevention.

Cattle’s are susceptible to major disease which directly effect on the production of milk and the Bodyweight. Therefore, Prior vaccination is better than cure. There are some basic principles which can follow in commercial Dairy Farming And can Stay away from Viral and Bacterial Disease. Here we are pointing some common cattle disease worldwide if you vaccinate the cattle from the following than the cattle will be Healthy.

Prior Vaccination against some major disease is one of the important part of commercial Dairy farming. A low-cost vaccination program can save your Expensive animal. The disease may vary region to region according to the environment.

General Indicators of Cattle health

Normal Breathing

the Normal Breathing of the calves is 30 to 50 times in a minute & normal Breathing of Adults is 10 to 30 times. +5 from the normal range can be normal but if observed more than that than the animal is sick.


The normal body temperature of healthy Cattle Lies between 101 to 102 º F. if the Horns, Ears are cold in touching while the Body is warm or more than 102 ºF than the animal is suffering from fever.


A health Animal indicates the Shining body Appearance and Hair on the body shines and similar while the Hair of unhealthy animal overlaps each other and doesn’t shine.

A healthy animal is well muscled while the unhealthy animal may be thin or fatty.

Eyes should be without discharge of tears and muzzle should be wet this is the indicators of animals.


A healthy animal always reacts normally if it is shouting than there may any problem.

Loss of appetite is the main indicator of sick animals. If it is not drink, eat and ruminate properly than this are the signs of unhealthy animals.

Diarrhea in calves

Diarrhea in calves is common and it is important to control on time otherwise it directly affects the growth of calves. If diarrhea is not controlled on time it turns into the death of calves. It caused by dehydration or loss of electrolytes in the body.

Diarrhea is one of the major economic loss of commercial Dairy Farming. the major cause of diarrhea is E-coli Bacteria.

How to control Calf Diarrhea?

  • Sulfadiamidine, it is the anti-bacterial powder give 150 mg/kg body weight  orally for 3 to 5 days
  • Amprolium- 10 mg/kg bodyweight for 3 to 5 days.
  • Monesin 3 mg/kg body weight in feed.
  • Toltrazuril 20 mg /kg body weight.

Prevention of diarrhea

  • Feed the colostrums to newborn calf within 4 to 5 hours.
  • Provide clean, dry and hygiene or well-ventilated house to the calves
  • Don’t be overcrowding. There should be separated pen of new-born calves

Following precaution should be noted prior to vaccination:

  • weak, debilitated, immune-compromised and infested cattle should not be vaccinated.
  • Cows in an advanced stage of pregnancy and calves below three months of age must not be vaccinated.
  • Cattles should be dewormed prior to vaccination.
  • Vaccines especially live ones should be checked for the cold chain because these vaccines are very much heat sensitive in nature.
  • Fresh sterilized disposable syringes and needles should be used for every animal to avoid cross-contamination.
  • The interval between two different vaccine should be kept 15 to 21 days

Major cattle Disease in Dairy Farming

Foot & Mouth Disease (FMD)

Foot and mouth disease is Highly transmissible Viral Disease it spread through direct contact or through contaminated feed, water or air. Better is that contaminated animal sends to the isolation pen. FMD is caused by Aphthovirus.  This virus is the family of picornaviridae virus. This virus mainly affect on cloven hooved animals. If proper treatment is not done on time it can cause the Death of the animals.

Common Symptoms of  FMD

  • Vesicle or blister on Dental pad, Tongue and lips.
  • Lameness
  • Foot lesion
  • Drop in milk
  • Lesion on Tits
  • Fever, Nasal discharge
  • Loss of appetite


  • Prior Vaccination is the only treatment.
  • The affected area should be clean from Potassium permanganate.

Prevention of FMD

  • If the animal gets infected from the FMD virus than immediately separate them in quarantine House.
  • vaccinate the calves at the age of 4 months. And repeat the vaccine  Twice in a year at the interval of 6 months. It is one of the safe way to stay away from this disease.
  • Wash the pen, water and feeder trough and destroy the feed consumed by an infected animal.

Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR)

This disease is caused by Bovine-Herpesvirus. It is a highly fatal infectious viral disease of cattle. The mortality is less up to 5 while the morbidity is 70% in this disease. This disease is detected in cattle in all over the world. The vaccine is quite much needed against this disease. The disease can only be controlled by the vaccine.


  • Fever up to 105º F
  • Decrease appetite
  • Ocular & nasal discharge
  • Red Nose
  • Respiratory Distress
  • Swollen vulva
  • abortion
  • rhinitis/conjunctivitis
  • cough


Prior vaccine is the only treatment.


The disease can be prevented only from the vaccine

Hemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS)

Hemorrhagic septicaemia  is a highly contagious bacterial disease caused by Pasteurella multocida bacteria. This disease also known as bacterial pneumonia. The disease occurs mainly in cattle and buffalo. This is the very dangerous disease, 75 % of death is possible to the susceptible animal. HS mainly occurs during monsoon.

Common Symptoms of Hemorrhagic septicaemia

  • High rise in temperature
  • Pneumonia
  • Swelling on neck
  • Nasal Discharge
  • Difficult Breathing
  • Decrease appetite.


  • Prior Vaccination is the only treatment.
  • Some animals survive after detection of HS


  • A low-cost vaccine can save your expensive animal. Vaccinate the calves after 6 months and above. This vaccine is scheduled once in a year only in endemic areas.
  • Don’t overcrowding on the farm.
  • The house should be well ventilated, dry and hygiene especially in monsoon season.

Black Quarter (BQ)

Black quarter is an acute, infectious and highly fatal bacterial disease of cattle. It is soil born infection which generally occurs during rainy season. The animal between age 8 months to 2.5 years generally mainly affected from Black Quarter. This disease also known from Blackleg.

Symptoms of  Black Quarter

  • Swelling on legs cause lameness is the common symptoms of BQ.
  • Suddenly High Fever up to 108 ºF.
  • Decrease appetite


There is not any perfect treatment after detection.


In endemic areas, the animals should be vaccinated once a year before the monsoon.


This disease also known from contagious Abortion, infectious abortion, epizootic abortion and Bang’s disease. it is a zoonotic disease. Humans may get infected with this disease either through consumption of infected milk or handling during kidding.

Diagnosis of this disease is usually made by isolating the organism from foetus placenta, vaginal discharge, or milk.

Symptoms of Brucellosis

  • Abortion
  • Joint swelling
  • Retention of placenta


  • Treatment of brucellosis is difficult because the organism is an intracellular parasite.
  • Long-acting oxytetracycline combined with streptomycin may be useful.


Vaccination of calves at the age 3 to 6 months of age with B melitensis Rev 1 vaccine (Live attenuated) is recommended universally for prevention of this disease.


Anthrax is a highly fatal Bacterial disease of zoonotic potential. It is caused by Bacillus anthracis a large gram-positive aerobic spore forming bacteria. The infections spread through feed and water contaminated with spores.

 Common symptoms of Anthrax

Sudden death with bleeding from all-natural orifices especially nostrils and mouths of the dead animal are characteristics of this disease.


A spore vaccine containing a suspension of live spores of the attenuated non-capsulated strain of Bacillus anthracis, is used in endemic areas.


The disease affected animal should be burned or buried deeply to avoid dissemination and persistence of spores in the environment.

Contact the veterinarian immediately if the animal suspected from this disease.


It is a protozoan disease caused by theileria parasite. It can be transmitted through a tick bite. This disease generally seen in cross breed animals.

Common  Symptoms of theileriosis

  • Jaundice
  • Nasal discharge
  • Swollen lymph node
  • Fever
  • Salivation
  • Eater discharge from eyes


  • External deworming is essential against this disease
  • Vaccinate the animal at the age of 3 months and above for the protection against this disease.

Vaccination schedule for Cows and Buffalo

Name of Disease Age of first vaccine Booster Schedule
Foot & Mouth
Disese (FMD)
4 Months & Above 1 month after
first dose
Twice in Year.
Mainly Sept & March
Septicaemia (HS)
6 Months & Above Once in A year
(only in endemic area)
Brucellosis 4-8 Months
(only Female)
Only once in a Life
Black Quarter 6 Months & Above Once in Year Before
(only in endemic area)
Theileriosis 3 Months & Above Once in a Year
IBR 3 Months & Above Twice in a year
(only in endemic area)
Anthrax 4 Months & Above 1 month after
first dose
Once in A year
(only in endemic area)

Note – the Dose and Route may vary manufacturer to manufacturer

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