Goats are susceptible to a number of infectious diseases which cause huge economic loss to the Goat farming community. Timely vaccination reduces mortality and morbidity and other disease in goats leading to the increased production and reproduction performance of goats.
The vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease.
Vaccination has an important role to play in the responsible use of antibiotics on animal farms. Thus vaccination reduces various expenditures of the goatry leading to the increased profitability to the goat farmers. Vaccination is for savage of incoming goat diseases.
Following precaution should be noted prior to vaccination:
- weak, debilitated, immune-compromised and infested goats should not be vaccinated.
- Goats in an advanced stage of pregnancy and kids below three months of age must not be vaccinated.
- The goat should be dewormed prior to vaccination.
- Vaccines especially live ones should be checked for the cold chain because these vaccines are very much heat sensitive in nature.
- Fresh sterilized disposable syringes and needles should be used for every animal to avoid cross-contamination.
- The interval between two different vaccines should be kept 15 to 21 days.
Different Vaccination Route
Normally there are three routes of vaccination in goats first is ”subcutaneous” this one of the common route for vaccination, the vaccine is done on the above the skin. all the five important vaccination is done by this route. but generally route of vaccination shown on the vaccine cover.
the second route is ” intramuscular”
Goats must be vaccinated against 5 major diseases
If you do this 5 vaccine at your farm than mortality rate will be zero or 1 % definitely.
Vaccination is when a vaccine is administered to the animal by injection. Immunization is what happens to the body after having the vaccination. The vaccine stimulates the immune system so that it can recognize the disease in goat and protect the animal from future infection.
Vaccines also have done in human beings at a small age for future protection those are smallpox, chicken pox, yellow fever rotavirus, polio.
Contagious disease – spread from one to another
Fatal disease – death, mortality should be 100 %
Endemic area – disease regularly found among particular animal or in a certain area
#1 (PPR) Peste des Petits Ruminants disease in goat
It is also known as pseudorinderpest or goat plague. It is a fatal disease in goats causing mortality as high as 100 %.
there is no specific treatment available against this disease hence vaccination is the only way to prevent the occurrence of the disease in goats.
The vaccine comes in freeze dried form.
1ml of the reconstituted vaccine per animal is given by subcutaneous route.
Vaccination of the kids at the age of 3 months provides immunity for 3 years.
In adult goats, the vaccine can be given during anytime during the year.
Transporting stress generally acts as a predisposing factor for PPR outbreak in goats. Hence PPR vaccination advised before transportation.
The cost of vaccine is 1 to 2 rupees per animal
Symptoms of PPR disease
PPR is characterized by high fever, severe depression, decreased appetite, watery nasal discharge, respiratory distress, conjunctivitis, mouth ulcer, severe diarrhea, and abortion
This is the viral disease in goats and there is no treatment of this disease only antibiotics can give to the affected animals. For prevention of goat from these disease before the vaccine is required.
#2 Goat pox
Goat pox is a highly contagious viral disease in goat and it frequently observed in West Bengal, Bihar, Chattisgarh, Maharashtra, Orissa, and the adjoining states of these states.
In this disease, morbidity may go up to 100 % whereas mortality may be as high as 90%. like PPR, vaccination is the only way to prevent the occurrence of the disease in goats.
Vaccination of kid with goat pox vaccine at 3 months of age, thereafter booster dose one-month post vaccination is recommended for the prevention against the disease.
For completely protection yearly vaccination is needed. Goat pox vaccine is a live vaccine which is given at the dose rate of 1ml per animal by subcutaneous route.
Symptoms of Goat pox disease
Highly contagious, infectious to goats characterized by fever, ocular and nasal discharges, Pox lesions appear on the skin and on the respiratory and gastrointestinal mucosa. Depression & prostration, high fever, discharge from eye and nose, papules, nodules, vesicular finally scabs.
Put affected animal away from the herd. Clear the wound with hydrogen peroxide. Give the animal antibiotic medicine like ampicillin, oxytetracycline, penicillin. For prevent the goat from these disease before the vaccine is required.
#3 Foot and mouth disease (FMD)
Foot and mouth disease in goat is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animal including goats, and cause low mortality and high morbidity which leads to the extreme economic loss to goat farmers in India.
Vaccination of kids with FMD vaccine at age of 3 months, thereafter booster dose at 3-4 weeks post vaccination and revaccination at half yearly intervals is the only way to prevent the incidence of this disease.
Dose rate of vaccine is 1ml per animal by subcutaneous route.
Symptoms of Foot and mouth disease
Dullness, fever, small blisters on mouth and tongue, blisters between toes & feet, lameness, refused feed, abortion, kids may die suddenly due to trigroid necrosis of heart.
Because these are virus disease there is no treatment of this disease but the wound can be clear with the kmno4 Best way to prevent is vaccination of herd.
#4 Enterotoxaemia (ET)
This disease is also called overeating or pulpy kidney disease. Overeating on concentrates/lush pasture and sudden change in the feed from a poor to carbohydrate-rich diet / lush pasture are the predisposing factors for the occurrence of disease.
Sudden death without any clinical signs is also commonly observed. The goats normal at night are found dead in the morning.
Immunization of susceptible goats with killed ET vaccine is done at 3 months old kids, and is given at the rate of 2 ml subcutaneously, and repeat after 3 weeks initially also called booster dose. After that repeat every 6 months.
Symptoms of Enterotoxaemia disease
ET occurs more commonly in well-fed kids feed lot kids on heavy grain ration and animal that tend to overeat concentrate diet competitively. Overeating on concentrates. Lush pasture generally precipitates ET. In goats, diarrhea and sudden death are common symptoms.
There is no benefit of medical treatment of this disease. Best way to prevent this dangerous disease is only vaccination of herd twice in a year.
#5 Hemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) (Bacterial pneumonia)
Pasteurella multocida is one of the most common bacterial agents associated with pneumonia in goats.
The vaccine contains inactivated culture of Pasteurella multocida, and is given at the rate of 2 ml subcutaneous route and repeated annually.
Symptoms of Hemorrhagic septicaemia disease
Hemorrhagic septicemia is characterized by high fever, severe depression, decreased appetite, watery nasal discharge, respiratory distress, conjunctivitis, mouth ulcer, severe diarrhea.
Overview and schedule of 5 important vaccination
Note: Dose and Route may vary manufacturer to manufacturer,
Goats may be vaccinated against following two major diseases in an endemic area:
The Anthrax is an infectious and contagious disease with zoonotic potential. Anthrax used in endemic areas with a dose rate of 1 ml subcutaneous annually.
it is an acute, infectious and highly fatal bacterial disease of cattle, Goats may also be affected.it is soil born infection which generally occurs during the rainy season. The dose rate of BQ is 2ml subcutaneously each year before the rainy season in endemic areas.
Basic care and management in the farm.
- spread lime powder on the floor of the farm, to stay away from bacteria. Also, paint on the walls of the farm.
- After deworming give liver tonic to the goats. Liver tonic provides power to the liver.
- The goat house should be well ventilated. Air and gases should pass from it
- the farm floor should be dry. Generally, goats don’t like wet floor. The floor should be clean from manure, twice a day to away from the disease.
- Health checkup should be done on the farm by the veterinary doctor to check the health of the goats. By this, You can away from the major disease on the farm.
- 1 sick goat can spread the disease to all goats. keep the detected sick in another place in the farm, or in sick goat room.
Disease in goats caused by Bacteria
- BLACKQUARTER (BLACKLEG
- MALIGNANT OEDEMA (GAS GANGRENE)
- INFECTIOUS NECROTIC HEPATITIS
- ENTEROTOXAEMIA CAUSED BY CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGES TYPES B AND C
- PULPY KIDNEY DISEASE
Disease in goats caused by Virus
- PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS
- CONTAGIOUS ECTHYMA
- GOAT AND SHEEPPOX
- NAIROBI SHEEP DISEASE
- RIFT VALLEY FEVER
- OVINE PROGRESSIVE PNEUMONIA (MAEDI/VISNA)
- FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE (FMD)