the goat farming in India is growing day by day, Goat is a versatile animal. It is known as a poor man’s cow in. goats can be kept with little expenses in the marginal and undulating lands unsuitable for all types of livestock. goat farming plays a major role, landless farmers.
Goat can efficiently survive on available shrubs and in tree leaves in low fertility where no other crop can be grown or in small ration because of small size, less requirement of housing, more resistance to disease easily disposal of its products.
Goat is considered as a bar of gold that can be encashed by the farmers at any time of the year and also at farmers critical hour of need. In India goat is mostly reared by goat meat ‘chevon’ consumed by almost all non- vegetarians. Indians prefer goat meat as compare to any other meat. and its contribution to Indian Economy
The contribution of goat farming in India to its economy
- According to FAO, the Goat sector contributes Rs. 38,000 crore (8.41%) to value of output from the livestock sector (Rs. 46000 crores) in India.
- Increase in annual rural employment from 3.2% to 4.2% over the years
- Goat population rise from 95 million in 1982 to 140 million in 2007 and slightly gone down to 135 million in 2012.
- Production of goat meat Chevon increased from 0.324 MMT(million metric tonnes) in 1982 to 0.941 MMT in 2012-13. (Estimated annual value Rs 22,800 crore at current price)
- Production of goat milk increased from 1.07 MMT (million metric tonnes) in 1982 to 4.95 MMT in 2012-13. (Estimated market value Rs 9564 crore)
- Skin production increased from 0.086 MMT in 1966 to 0.17 MMT in 2012-13 ( Rs.1491 crore)
Key advantages of goat farming in India
goat farming in India and Goat keeping has now become a key portion of the rural development program in the developing countries.
The Goat milk is easy to digest than cow milk because of small fat globules and is naturally homogenized. Goat milk is said to play a role in improving appetite and digestive efficiency.
Milk of goat is non-allergic as compared to cow milk and believed to have anti-fungal and antibacterial properties.
Unlike large animals, in the commercial farm, both male and female goats have equal value.
Goats are prolific breeders and achieve sexual maturity at the age of 10 to 15 months. The gestation period in goats is short and at the age of 14 to 15 months, it starts giving milk.
Twinning and triplets are very common in goats found in this area.
To the poor, rearing of goat serves as insurance during economic times during the economic crisis.
Goat is claimed as a useful animal for poor people and is responsible for clearing bushes and making land worth condition.
Looking at the present declination trend of land holdings, the goat husbandry emerges as one of the viable livelihood options among the rural masses.
In drought-prone areas risk of goat farming is very much less as compared to other livestock species.
Government of India providing subsidies to start goat farming in India.
The number of tasty product can be made from goat meat for ex- sausages, nuggets, pickle, patty and many more.
the skin of Goat is used for making good quality leather.
Goat provides manure with high NPK value of agriculture farming.
the Goat milk and meat are rich in protein.
Goats are friendly animal and enjoy being with the people.
Goats are 3 times more economical than sheep on free range grazing under semi-arid condition.
There is ample scope for establishing cottage industries based on goat meat and milk products and value addition to skin and fiber.
there is a huge demand for goat cheese, goat milk soap, goat manure as a fertilizer, that’s why goat farming in India demanding more and more.
The popular Indian goat breeds
found in Etawah district of Uttar Pradesh. Used for dual purpose milk and meat, they are large size tall and leggy, large pendulous ears and Roman nose, long thick hair on their back and posses a glossy coat. The body weight of adult bucks ranges between 65 to 70 kg. and does 45 kg approx. milk yield approx 2 to 2.5 kg, lactation period 180 days. Kidding once a year to single and twins.
Barbari breed mainly found in Uttar Pradesh. It is used for both milk and meat, it is a dwarf breed. they have short hair, white colour with brown spotted on it and the ears are straight. The average weight of the adult male is 32 to 38 kg approx and adult female weight is 25 to 30 kg. multiple births are common normal give twins and triplets.
found in West Bengal, Orissa, Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, and northeastern states. Animals are small, the predominant colour is black, brown and grey and white are also found. Shoulder and hip are of equal height, the chest is wide, ears are upright and pointed, short hair. Multiple births are common. Skin is of superior quality and is demand in both in India and abroad in the footwear industry. The average weight of adult ranges from 30 to 35 kg approx.
Found in Punjab and Haryana .they are large in size tall and leggy, large pendulous ear and roman nose. The coat colour is mainly black and brown. They are heavy in weight. The body weight of adult bucks ranges from 70 to 85 kg. and does 50 kg approx. milk yield approx 1 to 1.5 kg, lactation period 180 days. Kidding once a year to single and twins.
This breed is originated in Rajasthan India and can survive everywhere in India. the brown coat with dark brown spots is common also in full brown colour. The ears are pendulous and horns are straight. The adult male goat weight normally about 50 to 55 kg. this breed is for dual purpose both for meat and milk.
Housing and shelter for goat
For goats housing, a low-cost shed can be made from locally available resources like bamboo, thatch, etc.
The shed should be sufficient floor space, well ventilated, clean and hygiene every time. Generally, goats don’t like wet floor so the floor should be dry.
It is advisable to house different age group of animal separately. Pregnant goats require enough and separate space, keep them away from adult buck.
Area of the shed depends on the number of animals present on the farm. The farm should not be overcrowded and Open paddock area should be twice the covered area.
Recomonded floor space for different age groups are as follows:
|Age of goats||Covered area||Open paddock|
|0 to 3 Months||0.2-0.25||0.4-0.5|
|3 to 6 Months||0.5-0.75||1.0-1.5|
|6 to 12 Months||0.75-1.0||1.5-2.0|
| Pregnant and |
Note : These covered area and open paddock are in square meter
Feeding characteristics of goats
- Goat is hardy, sure-footed small ruminants. They prefer to browse different kind of fodder.
- goats can be fed with kitchen wastes, grains of the kitchen, which can save 10 % feeding cost. They don’t prefer to eat stale food.
- They prefer nibbling so feed and fodder should be provided at small quantities and at least 3-4 times in a day.
- To avoid fodder wastage, keep the fodder on fodder rack or tied and hung in a small bunch.
- General management tips
- Healthy goat of a good breed is of prime importance for a profitable goat farming.
- Good quality green fodder and green balanced feed will enhance productivity.
- Keep the breeding buck separately from doe and kids.
- Castrate all the male goats which are not selected for breeding at the age of 2-4 weeks.
Points to be remembered for breeding
1. Good breed
2. Healthy and breedable stock.
3. Controlled and monitored breeding
Selection of breeding stock
- Healthy,physically well developed and sexually matured.
- For selectiong breeding buck testicles should be fully developed.
- legs of the male should be strong.
- For selecting doe the udder and teats should be well developed, and symmetrical with sufficient milk to nourish her kids.
- Sex ratio is 1:10 for effectivenes
- The udder should be soft well spread with long and soft teats and pointed towards the front.
- Age of sexual maturity Should be 10 to 15 months or at least 25 kg body weight.
- Observations become very important i.e. that the animal is served in anticipation of new kids. Observations will enable farmer select animals as replacement stock some of the traits to look at are twining ability, mothering ability, growth rate, milk production, and kidding intervals
- To get the desirable kidding size, the buck should be bred once in three days.
- The doe giving kids after every 8 to 9 months with single or twins should be selected.
- Does with abnormal physical characteristics and irregular oestrus cycle should be timely culled from the herd.
Care and management of new born kids
Proper care and management are one of the most important tasks for the commercial goat farmer, all the productivity and profit depends on the kids care. More stock or crops make more money.
The first two weeks from the birth the kids require proper attention and proper housing, the floor should be laying of grass if kids lick the soil than kid have to suffer from diarrhea. proper bedding, clean and hygiene of the farm and clean water are the basic care for newborn kids.
Some important rules for care and management in goat farming in India are as follows:
- Disinfect the navel cord with tincture iodine as soon as it is cut with a sharp knife
- Special care should be given to the kids for the first 90 days of their age because there is a high mortality rate during this age.
- The doe and kids should be kept in a healthy, well ventilated, spacious and dry shed.
- The kids should be protected from extreme weather. Particularly during the first two months.
- Feed the milk to kids up to 90 days after which the kids should be weaned.
- Castrate the kid at 2 to 3 months of age which is not going to use for breeding in the future. Castration improves the quality of meat.
- Vaccine the kid as per recommended schedule.
Care of goat during pregnancy
In the advanced stage of pregnancy, the does must be transferred to either kidding pens or separately embarked space for kidding within the main shed after thoroughly disinfecting it. After kidding, the doe should be provided with warm bran mash for two days./
Disease In goats
Goat Diseases and parasitic infections are serious constraints affecting goat production worldwide. Economic losses are caused by decreased production, cost of prevention, cost of treatment, and possible death of infected animals.
The goat is susceptible to some disease. The disease could away from the farm with proper management, cleanness, and hygiene of the farm. Some of the medicine and injection should always available on the farm.
Proper vaccination schedule should follow in the farm after weaning of the kids. Vaccination at the age of 3 months from the birth improves the productivity of the farm, the mortality rate will be 2 to 3 % .after vaccination kids can save from the major disease like PPR, ENTEROTOXAEMIA(ET), FMD.
PPR (Peste des Petits Ruminants)
PPR is an acute or peracute, febrile, often fatal disease of small ruminants caused by Morbillivirus of family Paramyxoviridae. It is also known as psuedorinderpest or goat plague. It is similar to rinderpest in cattle. The vaccine provides immunity for 3 years.
fever, nasal and lacrimal discharge, depression, thirst. Anorexia, and rough hair coat and dry muzzle are the common findings of the disease. Coughing and sneezing are a prominent sign this time.
to prevent the occurrence of the disease, vaccination of the kids at the age of 3 months with PPR vaccine is required.
Goat pox is a highly contagious viral disease of goats characterized by fever. It is caused by capripox virus of the family poxviridiae. In India, goat pox is frequently observed in Rajasthan, Orissa, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, and West Bengal.
Inhalation of aerosols from acutely affected animals and direct contact through skin are the natural mean of transmission.
skin lesions (reddish macules and papules) appear in 1 or 2 days and spread in all over skin but most in the face, eyes, and ear.
vaccination of kid with goat pox vaccine at 3 months of age. For complete protection yearly vaccination is necessary.
Foot and mouth disease (FMD)
It is the cause of an RNA virus of the family picornaviridae. FMD usually causes low mortality high morbidity which leads to the extreme economic loss to goat farmers in India. Lameness is the most important sign of FMD.
oral lesions, dullness, inappetence, restlessness, increased heart, and respiratory rates, shivering, fever, etc. pregnant goat may abort in this disease.
vaccination of kids with FMD vaccine at age of 3 months, thereafter booster dose at 3 to 4 weeks post vaccination. Revaccination should be done after 6 months.
It is also known as pulpy kidney or overeating disease and caus by a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringes type D. that is normally present in the ruminant digestive tract. Overeating on concentrates lush pasture sudden change in the feed from a poor to carbohydrate-rich diet or lush pasture are the predisposing factors for the occurrence of the disease.
the clinical sign includes a sudden loss of appetite, profound depression, continuous changing of sitting posture, champing of jaws, fever 105℉ and profuse watery diarrhea.
vaccination of kids with ET vaccine done at 3 months of age and booster dose after 3 weeks initially. Repeat vaccination after 6 months. the vaccine is quite important for goat farming in India and it’s quite hard to do goat farming without ET vaccine.