Dairy farming is one of the Part of agriculture, In which the farmer raised the Cow for milk production. The milk has become an important part of a healthy diet for all the ages. The per capita consumption of milk is increasing worldwide from the last two decades. Therefore, the dairy sector is reaching to a higher level day by day.
Dairy farming is one of the source of income for the marginal farmer worldwide for the better livelihood. It is not the new Enterprise, people raised them from thousands of year.
As per the Analysis, Dairy farming is the expandable business and there is huge growth in it. The profit is more and risk is less compared to other business. A lot of entrepreneurs entering in this business and making a good profit.
Both cow and buffalo arrive in diary farming both have the same principle, same gestation period and same Lactation period. Buffalo has more butterfat as compared to a cow. some countries prefer buffalo milk rather than cow milk
Why Dairy Farming?
- The main Advantage of dairy farming is Cash flow. In other words, you can get income from the first day by selling milk because there is a huge demand for milk in every place.
- Dairy farming is the scalable Business, this business can be scale as much as possible depending on how many cows in your farm and how much Milk production are you getting from your Cow.
- Milk has become the basic needs of human beings. Peoples of all age Drink Milk, Eats tasty products made from milk. A good profit can generate from the selling of milk.
- Generally, the cows produce milk up to 10 months (Lactation Period) and Dry period is of 2 months in a year.
- Dairy farming gives a quick return you can free your investment costing on the animal in 1 and 1.5 years.
- As per the Population of every country growing day by day. The consumption of milk and milk Products Continuously increasing. The consumption of milk and its products is increasing more than Production.
- Cow dung is the bi-product which has higher NPK value (Nitrogen, Phosphorus,& potassium). It can be used as an organic fertilizer and it is best suited for crop production for any type of land.
- The cow is suited for any climatic condition.
MILK Cycle of Cow
- The cow starts milk production after giving birth to the calf. Generally, Cow delivered once in a year and normally give one calf.
- The cow should be At least two years old for mating with the Bull or for Artificial insemination. A quality bull will give Quality results.
- The gestation period of a cow is 9 months.
- After delivering a calf, The cow is able to Pregnant again after 60-90 days to continue the milk cycle
- Lactation Period of the cow is 10 of months.
- The dry period is of 2 months. No milk production in a dry period.
- Usually, the two months is the dry period of the cow for Next calving. This dry period is for energy conservation of next calving.
Lactation Period of Cow And Buffalo
Generally, the lactation period of a cow is of 10 months and 2 months Dry period. Cow produce milk according to their lactation period and they also need feed according to their lactation. There are three lactations in one calendar year which are:
Early Lactation (0-70 Days)
The early lactation is the Period after calving in which the production of milk is at peak level up to 2 months. In this period if the feed is not according to the requirement of the Cow than they will not produce milk in large quantity. The required forage in early lactation is more than 50% of the total feed.
Mid lactation ( 70-200 Days)
In Mid Lactation the milk production starts to decrease from the peak. The feed requirement is more and body weight increases in this period. This is the period in which the cow is mated or inseminated in between 90 to 130 days. The feed should be packed with Nutrition and there should be enough crude protein in dry matter intake. The quality feed will give quality milk in this period.
Late Lactation (200-305 Days)
In the late lactation, the milk production decreases 10 % per month provide enough dry matter to the cow in this period which should not be less than 55 % of the total feed in a day. The cow is pregnant in this period and need quality ration and forages. Provide mineral and calcium for better results.
Dry Period (60 days)
There is No milk production in this period. The weight of Cow increases and feed intake decreases in this period. The calcium and mineral block should always present in front of the cow. The cow is in the last stage of pregnancy and should be under observation and required separate space from other cows. Cow required enough calcium and phosphorus in this period.
Keep these things in mind before starting Dairy Farm
Housing is one of the important part of the commercial Dairy farming. The aspects like Health of animal, better milk production depends mainly on the comfort of the animal. The comfort of the animal directly related to well-planned Housing.
The Good Housing protects the animal from inclement weather like excessive heat during summer, cold during winter and rainy season or also from the predator attack.
- Floor area and the open area should be enough according to the number of animals.
- The ventilation of the House should be good for fresh air circulation.
- Cows needed clean dry and hygiene space for bedding. So the drainage and sanitation should be good.
- The water and feeder should be at according to the height of the cows.
- Do separate partition in the house for the cows according to their age, calve, bull calves, Heifer.
- Keep the open paddock area near the house for the exercising and natural environment where they can relax the whole day.
|Animal Type||Covered area (m2)||Open Area (m2)|
|Young Calves (less than 12 Months)||1||2|
|Adult Calves (More than 12 Months)||2||4|
Selection of Cattle breed is another important part of commercial dairy farming every breed have their own characteristics. The quality and quantity of milk is totally depends on the parenting breed.
There are hundreds of breed available. Every place has its own indigenous breed. so select the breed according to the local environment where they can survive easily.
Here are some Popular breeds worldwide
|Name of Breed||Average Milk Capacity Per Day(litres)||Origin|
Here are some more Cow breeds
The feed is important for milk production. A quality feed gives the high production of milk and maintains better health of the cow. The feed should be packed with All Nutrition-Mineral. Vitamins and crude protein.
Milk production and good health and reproduction management totally depend on dry matter intake by a cow.
Cows required Fresh green chopped Fodder, Dried Fodder or Silage for better production and reproduction. The forages fulfill the energy, protein, minerals and Fibre requirement of animal. Forages help for the good rumination.
Dry Fodder contains 13 to 15 % moisture
Some important Green fodder for Dairy Animals
Cowpea, Sorghum, Pearl millet, Moringa or oliefera, Lucerne (alfa alfa), HedgeLucerne, maize grass, cowpea, Napier grass or Elephant grass), Guinea, Beffel grass, Marvel grass, Sewan grass, cluster bean, fenugreek Grass, Azola.
- Maize Fodder – 9 to 10% crude protein and 70% Moisture
- Sorghum – 6 to 7% crude protein 70% Moisture
- Cowpea – 16 to 18% crude protein and 60 to 70% Moisture
Provide 1.25 kg of concentrated feed, 20-30 kg green Fodder per 250 body weight for better results.
|Cows age||Green Fodder||Dry Fodder||Concentrate Fodder|
|Calves (3-6 months)||3-5 Kg||1.5-2 Kg||1-1.5 Kg|
|Young calves (6-12 months)||4-6 Kg||1.5-2.5 Kg||1.5-1.75 Kg|
|Cows Adults more than 12 Months||20-30 Kg||2.5-3 Kg||1.5-2 Kg|
Provide 1 kg extra concentrate feed for the pregnant and lactating cows and buffalos for every 2-3 Kg Milk production
Concentrate Feed formulation for 100 Kg Feed
|Ingrediants||Weight in Kg|
Vaccination helps the immune system and generates protective antibodies which protect the animal body from disease. The low cost vaccines can save your high costing Animal.
‘‘Prior vaccination is better than cure’’. It will be a wise decision to vaccinate the animals before arriving of disease. The cows and buffalo come in the large animal categories and susceptible to less disease compared to Goats, sheep, and Poultry. But less disease doesn’t mean to take the risk. Vaccination is an important part of commercial Dairy Farming.
Vaccination schedule for Cows and Buffalo
|Name of Disease|| Age of first |
|Foot & Mouth|
|4 Months & Above|| 1 month after|
| Twice in Year. |
Mainly Sept & March
|6 Months & Above||–|| Once in A year |
(only in an endemic area)
|Brucellosis||4-8 Months |
|–||Only once in a Life|
|Black Quarter||6 Months & Above||–||Once in Year Before |
(only in an endemic area)
|Theileriosis||3 Months & Above||–||Once in a Year|
|IBR||3 Months & Above||–|| Twice in a year |
(only in an endemic area)
|Anthrax||4 Months & Above|| 1 month after |
| Once in A year |
(only in an endemic area)
Following precaution should be noted prior to vaccination
- Animals should be Healthy at the time of vaccination. Weak, debilated, or infested animal should not be vaccinated.
- Maintain the cold chain of the vaccine.
- Follow the instruction of dosage and Route of the vaccine.
- The Animal should be internally dewormed properly two weeks before the vaccination for better results.
Basic care and Management
Care and management of New Born Calf
- Delivery should be at a clean, dry and hygiene place. Provide clean bedding for a newborn calf.
- Immediately after birth Clean the mucus around the nostrils of Newborn calf for the better breathing.
- Firstly clean the cutting instrument with Tincture iodine. Secondly cut the Naval 2 to 3 inches from the base and tie the knot and dip the Naval in tincture iodine immediately.
- The tincture iodine should be more than 7% and repeat the naval dipping again after 12 hours.
- Allow Mother to clean the calf, it provides blood circulation and helps immediately to stand the calf.
- Feeding Colostrum in 2 hours after birth is one of the most important for the immunity of calf. Give 2-liter colostrum to Newborn calf. Generally, Feeding colostrum after 12 hours will not give immunity to the calf.
- Repeat the colostrums feeding for 5 days thrice a day.
- House of the cow should be well ventilated or avoid overcrowding in the pen.
- After 20 days, follow the deworming schedule and after 3 months start the vaccination.
- For better growth of the calf give them calf starter after 6 to 8 weeks.
|Ingredients||Weight in kg|
|Soy DOC||20 Kg|
|Mineral Mixture||1.5 Kg|
|Vitamin Premixes||1 Kg|
Care and management of Pregnant Animals
- Firstly pregnant animal should be under observation for last 2 months of pregnancy.
- Provide them 1 to 1.5 kg extra concentrate feed in the last 2 months of pregnancy.
- Provide a separate pen to the pregnant animals.
- Vulva discharge or increase size of the udder is the basic signs of calving.
Care and management of Milch Animals
- Feed the cows according to the production of milk. If the milk production is high the feed given to the cow should be more than normal.
- If milk production is at a peak level of more than 20 liters. Then instead of increasing more concentrate supplement the oil to the cow 250 g per day.
- check the udder regularly or clean them before and after milking. To avoid mastitis disease. Avoid milking during mastitis disease and contact the veterinarian as soon as possible.
Record Keeping in Dairy Farming
Maintaining record is effective & quite important for successful commercial dairy farming. Records help in checking the performance, production, And Reproduction of Animals. if more than 10 cows available on the farm than the record is essential and much needed.
Breeding record is important for the systematic breeding cycle. Dairy farming is the business of milk and Milk production totally depends on time to time breeding. The date of birth of the calf and next mating or insemination date with are maintained under this record.
The milk production of each day of cows is maintained under this record. The Early Lactation, Mid Lactation, and Late Lactation, Dry period, Wet period, Ratio of Dry and wet period are taken under this record. The feed record totally depends on Production record.
The Heat Detection or interval between the heat of cows, conception rate, cow abortion, Age at first calf. The interval between kids is coming under the reproduction record.
The whole vaccination schedule, deworming schedule, the weight of a cow, weight at birth of calf weight of heifer are taken under this record which is essential better results.
Required Equipment for Commercial Dairy Farm
- Body Cleaner or Brush
- Burdizzo castrator
- Hoof trimmer
- Milk Can
- Milk Analyzer fat counter
- Ear Tags & Applicator
- Weighing machine
- Milk machine.
The Artificial insemination is the deposition of semen into the female reproductive tract
Artificial insemination is the technique involving semen (sperm) collection from buck through the artificial vagina and transfer or deposit of semen (sperm) through gun into the reproductive tract of the doe (female). It differs from natural mating.
The technique is used to enhance the breed through fresh semen or commercially available frozen semen. This technique can also be used to convert non-breed into breed or improvement of the breed.
Advantages of artificial insemination in Cow And Buffalo:
- No need of keeping a large number of bulls on the farm, which reduces the cost of maintaining bulls.
- It helps in genetic improvement.
- The AI technique can be used to convert low quality indigenous breed into the high-quality breed. By injecting high-quality breed semen into a low-quality breed.
- It helps in maintaining records of breeding and the number of cows can breed in one day.
- It reduces the risk of transferring disease and desired sex can be produced through sperm sexing.
Commercial Dairy farming is a Profitable business on a small scale as well as on a large scale. The healthy animal can give us more profit in this venture. So follow all the aspects like vaccination, deworming, proper feeding or care, and management.
The consumption of milk and milk product is increasing worldwide. There is not so much need for marketing in selling milk. This is an easy and simple business but you have to make the proper management.