Leghorn chicken complete information and Characteristics

leghorn chicken for egg
leghorn chicken
White Leghorn

The breed leghorn chicken mainly originated in Italy. It comes in Mediterranean class. Leghorn is one of the best egg producing breeds. The breed exported from Italy to America in the mid of 1828. some varieties developed in America and Europe. It is a very active breed but rarely show broodiness.

Leghorn has used to enhance the egg productivity of other strains.

White Leghorn is the most popular variety of Leghorn. White is the first known variety. It is the Egg purpose breed or also known as prolific Egg layers.

It comes in both single and Rose Comb. There is eight variety of leghorn which is as follows:

  • Single comb White
  • Rose comb White
  • Single comb Brown
  • Rose comb Brown
  • Single comb Buff
  • Rose comb Buff
  • Single comb Silver
  • Single Comb Black

the single comb and rose comb varieties both are the same in shape and color the only difference is comb.

In my opinion single comb, black looks beautiful in all the varieties of leghorns.

Facts and Productivity of Leghorn Chicken

Name of Breed Leghorn
Other Name of Breed Livorno, livornese
Origin Tuscany, italy
Development year 1828
Disposition Very Active
Single comb White
Rose comb White
Single comb Brown
Rose comb Brown
Single comb Buff
Rose comb Buff
Single comb Silver
Single comb Black.
Comb type Single or Rose comb
Main color White
Purpose Egg-Purpose
Cock weight 2.5 kg to 2.7 kg (5.8 lbs to 6 lbs).
Cockrel weight 2.1 kg (4.8 lbs)
Hen weight 2 kg to 2.2 kg (4.4 lbs to 4.8 lbs).
Pullet weight 1.8 kg (3.9 lbs)
Egg capacity per year 290-300 eggs
Age at first Egg (days) 112-120
Egg weight 52-54 g
Egg color White
Egg size Large
Skin color Yellow
Shank color Yellow
Survivability %  upto 6 weeks 99

Characteristics of Leghorn Chicken

Leghorns are active and very energetic and have the ability to fly on the tree. The best egg layer in Mediterranean class. It is the small size breed but gives large size eggs. Foraging ability in leghorn is quietly good in large areas.

White Leghorn is commercially used for eggs purpose on a large scale. The feed they eat is very low and mature early as compared to other breeds. It is considered as the most profitable breed which gives excellent returns. The only disadvantage of the breed is its small size.

It is further classified in soft feather- light categories.

Appearance of leghorn chicken

white Leghorn chicken lay uo to 300 eggs.
White Leghorn

Leghorns has eight varieties of single and rose comb. The single comb is vertical upright with five to six tip or red in color, and the rose comb is either tapered in shape or red in color.

The ear lobes are in oval shape or white in color. The wattles are long and equal and round from the bottom or red in color in both the single or red comb variety.

The hen appearance is beautiful compared to cock.

Shanks and toes are yellow with no feathers. The beak is small, curved or yellow in color. The tail is long, inclined and well spread.

The shape is medium, the breast is full or round in shape. Eyes are red in color. The neck is medium and arched.

The average standard weight of cock ranges between 2.5 kg to 2.7 kg (5.8 lbs to 6 lbs).

The average standard weight of Hen ranges between 2 kg to 2.2 kg (4.4 lbs to 4.8 lbs).

Egg Production of Leghorn chicken

Single comb leghorn is used commercially for Hybrid egg production on a large scale.

Generally, leghorn hen starts laying eggs in 16 weeks, they give large size eggs. it matures early or lay egg continuously up to 72 weeks. Normally they give 290 to 300 eggs in a year. Some hens give more than 300 egg in a year.

At the first egg, the weight of the hen noted approximately 1.7 kg ± 100 g. it lays full white color eggs. Weight of the first egg is at least 54 g.

The cost of raring leghorns is very low and they are the most profitable breed for eggs either it is on free range or on large scale battery cage commercial poultry farm.

Layer housing

Sufficient Space requirement is the key part of laying eggs. The age of hen in a layer house should be above 17 weeks. 2 sqft (square feet) per hen is the sufficient space for laying eggs in both large or small scale.

House should be clean and disinfected, proper light at night and well ventilated for the fresh air circulation.

For the large scale commercial leghorn farming, battery cage system is one of the best for egg purpose in my opinion. And for small scale leghorn farming, free range is quite good.

Special care and management

  • Birds are susceptible to viral and bacterial disease. So prior vaccination is better than cure.  follow the proper vaccination schedule.
  • Don’t overcrowd; manage leghorns according to space for better productivity.
  • Leghorn is a good egg laying breed, for the good egg production the hen requires healthy feed. Provide them quality feed. The feed should be packed with a proper amount of protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals.
  • For the better results deworming the leghorn at the interval of every eight weeks. Debeaking at the time.                             

Why choose leghorn ?

Is leghorn good for your farm ?

  • Leghorns is a prolific egg layer. 300 eggs per year are very good to figure, it shows the productivity of leghorns.
  • It Matures early, small in size but gives large size eggs.
  • Leghorn is one of the most profitable breeds which eats less. The raising cost of the leghorn is half in comparison to raising other breeds.
  • Very active with good foraging ability.
  • The leghorn cock can be used for mating to enhance the egg-laying capacity of other breeds through cross-breeding.

Plymouth Rock chicken Complete information guide

chicken breed plymouth

Plymouth Rock is an American class breed. It is one of the Popular breeds of America. This breed is developed in 1869 in Worcester, city of Massachusetts. The breed is mainly used for meat but it is the dual purpose breed used for both meat and egg. it is the belief that Plymouth rock is the cross result of Dominique and Black Java.

Plymouth Rock has six variety which is Barred, silver penciled, white, Buff,  Columbian, and Partridge.

Plymouth rocks chicken grow rapidly and it has very much demand in the market. They produce a brown egg of large size. it lays around 200 to 220 eggs per hen per year. Plymouth rock performs better in both free range backyard or for commercial purpose.


Plymouth rock is mainly known from the barred variety. In which Barred is firstly developed in 1869. The other variety of Plymouth rock generated from the barred variety. out of six variety, 75% is barred Plymouth rock and the remaining variety are only 25% it is the most commercially used breed for meat in America. It is the heavy breed compared to Rohde island red.

white plymouth rock
White Plymout Rock

Facts and Productivity of Plymouth Rock chicken

Plymouth chicken profile
Plymouth Rock chicken Profile
Name of Breed Plymouth Rock
Other Name of Breed Barred Rock, Rocks
Origin Worcester, America
Development year 1869
Disposition calm
silver penciled
Comb type Single comb
Main color Barred
Purpose Dualpurpose
Cock weight 4 kg to 4.2 kg (8.8 lbs to 9.2 lbs).
Cockrel weight 3.5 kg (7.8 lbs)
Hen weight 3 kg to 3.4 kg (6.6 lbs to 7.4 lbs).
Pullet weight 2.6 kg (5.8 lbs)
Egg capacity per year 200-220 eggs
Age at first Egg (days) 140-150
Egg weight 45-50 g
Egg color Brown
Egg size Large
Skin color Yellow
Shank color Yellow
Survivability %  upto 6 weeks 98

Characteristics of Plymouth rock chicken

Plymouth is normally docile and active in nature but the rooster is a bit aggressive and noisy some times.

These breeds give maximum profit the flock owner and there is a huge demand for its meat. This is the excellent broiler breed and gives maximum returns in 9 to 12 weeks, its fast-growing qualities make it a favorite breed of poultry farmers.

Perform better in poor housing condition or in limited ration.

White Plymouth rock is in pure white color plumage. White Plymouth rock is using mainly in commercial broiler industry because it’s mature early. Use  For the meat purpose.

Appearance of Plymouth rock chicken

Barred plymouth Rock
Barred Plymoth Rock

The barred color of breed gives an excellent look to the farm in free-range Farming.

Plymouth Rock is a single comb breed. Both cock and hen has a single comb on the head. The red color comb with vertical number of the tip, small in size, which is round in shape from the side view gives them a beautiful look.

All the varieties have single comb.

Its shape is medium in size and length with a broad back, deep and full breast. Feathers are soft and heavy.

Large bright eyes are orange in color. Ear lobes and wattles have soft or red in color. Wattles are long and equal and round from the bottom. Ear lobes are half of the wattles.

Tail spreads well and inclined or medium in length.

Thick and strong beaks which is curved or yellow in color

Shanks are medium in length, straight, and free from feathers. Toes are straight and free from feathers.straight and free from feathers.

As compared to barred Plymouth rock the other varieties of Plymouth rock white, buff, partridge, silver penciled and Columbian. the only difference is color. The size, weight, shape and other physical characteristics are the same. 

Meat production

The breed is mainly used for meat purpose. The feed conversion ratio of Plymouth rock from feed to meat is quite good that’s why its mainly used for meat purpose. The breed is very good in weight gain and provides delicious chicken for us. the egg-laying hens after 72nd week are used for meat.

The average standard weight of cock ranges between 4 kg to 4.2 kg (8.8 lbs to 9.2 lbs).

The average standard weight of Hen ranges between 3 kg to 3.4 kg (6.6 lbs to 7.4 lbs).

Eggs production

Plymouth rock is good layer as well as a good mother. They lay around 200 to 220 eggs in a year. It starts to lay eggs in 19th to 20th weeks and continue to lay up to 72 weeks. It lays 4 to 5 eggs in a week.

Space requirement

In brooder house upto 8 weeks 0.7 sqft is sufficient per chicks.

In grower house 9 to 16 weeks 1 sqft is sufficient per chicken.

In layer house above 17 weeks  2 sqft if sufficient per bird.  

Nursery  Management for Plymouth rock chicks


 the caring of chicks to maintain their body temperature from day 1 to 60th-day brooding house needed. Normally electric bulb is used in brooder house as a source of heat to minimize the mortality. Which is quietly required to maintain temperature. 


for better health of the chicks provide them quality feed. The quality feed gives quality results. The feed should be packed with proper amount carbohydrates, protein, vitamins and minerals.

Health care:

Prior vaccination is better than cure. Plymouth rock needs protection against New castle disease and Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) or other viral or bacterial disease. So flock owner should follow the proper Vaccination from day 1 for the better productivity and growth of the chickens.

Basic care and management

  • The shelter should be well ventilated, feeder and drinker always remain in the house. maintain the temperature in the shed according to age.
  • House should be clean disinfected, free from the rates, mice, flies and needs protection against the predators.
  • Protect against the weather. during winter season provide heat in the house. Or during accessive rain protect birds from the rain.
  • Overcrowding causes a lot of viral and bacterial disease, so don’t overcrowd the birds in the house.
  • Deworming and debeaking are essential for Plymouth rock chicken.

Why choose Plymouth rocks?

Is Plymouth rock is good for your Farm?

  • The feed intake of Plymouth rocks is comparatively less while it gives more amount of meat and egg for us.
  • Plymouth rock has fair foraging ability.
  • This breed give quick returns of investment and rapidly grow and achieve very good weight in a short time
  • Plymouth rock show broodiness and its excellent mother or docile in nature.
  • The barred color gives a beautiful look to the bird. These breeds give excellent look to the farm in the free range system.
  • Dual purpose breed, full fill the protein requirement of the family from eggs and meat.

Rhode island red chicken characteristics and information

rohde island red bree

Rhode island red the name comes from the state of US Rhode island and the main color of breed is red. Rhode island red is an American class dual purpose breed used for both egg and meat. firstly It is mainly raised for egg because it is very good at laying eggs, secondly, it used for meat because of it also good in weight gain.

 it is the state bird of Rhode island.

The Rhode island single comb accepted by APA (American poultry association) in 1904. Rose comb accepted by APA in 1905. This breed exists under large fowl categories.

It is mainly originated in Rhode island and Massachusetts. It is the crossbreed of Asiatic class Malay and Mediterranean class brown leghorn that’s why its come in both single and rose comb. generally, it comes in a dark red color and its feather is hard.

Rhode island red is medium-heavy fowl mainly reared for egg production it lays 250 to 270 eggs per year by a single hen. Which is quite good. it performs very well in backyard poultry farming.

As per the American Poultry Association, Rhode island rate breed gives maximum profit to the flock owner. the feed intake of this breed is comparatively less while it gives more amount of egg and meat for us.  

Facts and Productivity of Rhode island red chicken

Rhode island red
rhode island red breed
Name of Breed Rhode island red
Other Name RIR, Rhode island
Origin Massachusetts and Rhode island of America
Development year 1904
Single Comb
red comb

Main color

Purpose Dualpurpose
Disposition Calm and friendly
Breed size Heavy
Cock weight 3.6 kg to 4 kg (7.9 lbs to 8 lbs).
Cockrel weight 3 kg (6.6 lbs)
Hen weight 2.8 kg to 3 kg (6.1 lbs to 6.2 lbs).
Pullet weight 2.2 kg (5 lbs)
Egg capacity per year 250-290 eggs
Age at first Egg (days) 140-150
Egg weight 45-50 g
Egg size Large
Egg color Brown
Skin color Yellow
Shank color Yellow
Survivability %  upto 6 weeks 99

Characteristics of Rhode Island Red

it is observed that the egg-laying capacity of this breed is higher in the coastal region. The Rhode Island red perform better if it is kept in natural condition and allowed them free range during the whole day. It gives maximum output in limited feed and small housing.

it also performs very well at intensive management system poultry farming or in battery cage system. Rhode red has become very popular in commercial layer poultry farming because of its high egg laying capacity attracts the investor in layer farming business. The food conversion ratio (FCR) of this breed is quite good.

This is the only breed which is used for both exhibition and egg production. It is the top class breed in dual purpose. It is docile and friendly in behavior.

Appearance of Rhode island red

Rhode red comes in two varieties, single comb or in rose comb with particularly dark red or brown color.

The body color is red.

The comb is medium in size or red in color. Beaks are little bit curvey and medium in size or reddish brown.

Eyes are oval in shape and orange or red in color.

In Rhode red, Shanks and toes are free from feather. Both shanks and toes are medium in length.

It has a slightly hard feather, which is either red or black in color. the tail increases the length of the bird. It is medium in length and In most cases, the tail is mainly black.

rose comb rhode island red
rhode island red chicken breed

Meat Production

Mostly Cock is used for meat production, Hens starts to lay eggs in its 20th week and lay continuously up to 72 weeks after that it is sold for meat. The Rhode island Red is also best in meat production it comes in the heavy breed. The breed has good food consumption ratio into the meat.

The average standard weight of cock ranges between 3.6 kg to 4 kg (7.9 lbs to 8.8 lbs).

The average standard weight of Hen ranges between 2.8 kg to 3 kg (6.1 lbs to 6.6 lbs).

Egg Production

The Rhode hen particularly starts laying eggs in the middle of 20 to 21 weeks. Normally, At the first egg, the weight of hen is noted above 2 kg. weight of the first egg is approximately 45 to 50 g.

They give 250 to 270 eggs in a year or 6 eggs in a single week. The quality feed gives quality egg and meat, for the better production of meat and egg the birds need comfort and quality feed with all nutrition minerals and vitamins.

Space requirement for RIR

     House     AgeBattery cage
Deep litter
Brooder House 0-8 weeks 0.7 sq ft
per bird
0.5 sq ft
per bird
Grower house 9-16 weeks 1 sq ft
per bird
0.6 sq ft
per bird
Layer house Above
17 weeks
2 sq ft
per bird
0.7 sq ft
per bird

Basic Care and Management of Rhode island red Chicken for Better Productivity

  • Chickens are susceptible to a number of diseases. So follow proper vaccination schedule, either if you are rearing in the free-range backyard or commercially.
  • Provide enough heat at the time of brooding or in cold weather.
  • it is important to give complete balanced feed for better productivity of egg. The feed should be packed with all the nutrition, mineral and vitamins.
  • Housing for Rhode island Red chicken should be well ventilated, requires light at night and protection from the predators.  
  • External or internal deworming is needed for better growth of the birds.
  • Cleaning and disinfecting the layer house needed at the time of laying eggs.
rhode island red cock
Rhode island red chicken breed info

Why choose Rhode island Red?

Is Rhode island red Good for your Farm?

  • Rhode island red is a dual purpose breed used for both meat and eggs.
  • They have the ability to find their own food in the backyard or free range.
  • The capacity of egg production is very good as a comparison to another breed.
  • Rhode island Red can survive in any climate conditions.
  • Excellent mother and sister.
  • Fulfill the nutrition requirement of the family.
  • Provide rapid returns.
  • Rhode island Red is docile in behavior, attractive look, easily attached with family and can be used for exhibition.

Rohde island Red By Wikipwedia

Is goat farming a Profitable Business

profitable business
is goat farming profitable ?
profitable business goat farming

Everyone wants to know Is Goat Farming Profitable Business? I will say Yes it is a profitable business because of the huge demand of Goat Meat. it is the tastier meat than any other and people of India Love to Eat Goat Meat.

Goat farming plays an important and vital role in providing nutritive food and in supplementing family incomes and generating gainful employment in the rural sector. it is a profitable business if done properly with management.

Particularly, Goat farming is a profitable business and it is one of the growing business in the whole world because its meat is tastier and the price of meat is more than other meat. it is consumed in large amount and its huge demand in the market, The market is more demanding in terms of requirements. goat rearing is for multipurpose, it is a good source of meat, milk, skin, and fiber. Goat can survive in any type of climate.

therefore, Goat farming has tremendous potential for income and employment generation, especially in rural areas. This sector is capable of changing the economy of rural areas if proper attention to be given.

Benefits in goat farming

Small body size, docile nature, high prolificacy, survives on low-grade ration and small gestation period are some important attributes of goat production.

Production of goat start in 10 to 12 months of age, it has a small gestation period, normally gives two kids in 5 months. The cost of six months of kids is normally 4 to 5 thousand also depend on its weight.

Goat milk possesses medicinal & health-promoting properties (CLA, Bioactive peptides, minerals, and vitamins),  easy to digest because of the small size of fat globules and non-allergic.

profitable business goat farming
income from meat, milk and manure

Goat sector plays a major role in Indian Economy

  • Contributes Rs. 38,000 crore (8.41%) to value of output from livestock sector (Rs. 46000 crores). According to livestock census.
  • Increase in annual rural employment from  3.2%  to 4.2% over the years
  • Goat population rise from 95 million in 1982 to 140 million in 2007 and slightly gone down to 135 million in 2012.
  • Production of goat meat increased from 0.324 Million Metric Tones in 1982 to 0.941 Million Metric Tonnes in 2012-13.  (Estimated annual value Rs 22,800 crore at current price). According to livestock census.
  • Production of goat milk increased from 1.07 Million Metric Tonnes in 1982 to 4.95 Million Metric Tonnes in 2012-13. (Estimated market value Rs 9500 crore)
  • Skin production increased from 0.086 Million Metric Tones in 1966 to 0.17 Million Metric Tones in 2012-13 ( Rs.1491 crore) According to livestock census.

Is Goat farming profitable – yes it is but profit in goat farming depends on the following factors:

Goat housing

housing of goats
Housing of goats

Goats should be housed to protect them from bad weather for example rain, sun and. Wind. Each

adult goat should be allowed a floor space of 1.5 square meters. The goats present on the farm should not be overcrowding, the disease in goat spread from one to another because of overcrowding. So proper  Goat housing management is the key for a successful farm.

Farm should clean twice a day, feeder and drinker should be clean everytime.

Climatic data can be used as a guide for the type of housing, insulation, ventilation, and other factors that must be considered for proper goat housing.

Goat breeds

The selection of Goat Breeds plays a major role in goat farming. All of your Business plans depend on the breed you select, so select the breed according to your region.

there are mainly 28 known goat breeds available in India. Some are the milk breeds and some are the meat breeds. But actually, the first priority of all goat is used for meats. The profitability depends upon the selection of Good Breed and it is the first step of your question is goat farming profitable.

Goat Feed

Healthy feed to the goat gives good health to the animal. If you do not give enough feed to the goat then you can be in loss, so give proper green, dry and concentration feed to the goats. Approximately 60 percents of spent on the goat feed in commercial or stall feeding goat farming system.

Green fodder

sorghum (jowar), bajra (pearl millet), Moringa, azola, subabool, Lucerne (alfa alfa), hedgeLucerne , maize grass, cowpea, berseem, Napier grass (elephant grass), Guinea, anjan grass (beffel grass), dinanath grass, marvel grass, sewan grass, guar (cluster bean), methi grass (fenugreek)  & tree leaves.

Concentration feed is the mixture of wheat, maize, rice bran, soy cake or any cake, mineral mixture and salt.

  • concentrate Keep your animals healthy
  • A healthy animal is more able to resist diseases and can recover more easily when it does get sick.
  • A sick animal costs farmer money and time. A farmer with a sick animal has to buy medicines, syringes, and needles. It is better for a farmer if animals stay healthy and do not get sick.
  • Treatment is also more successful if it is given early before the animal is so sick that the medicine can not help it.


goat vaccination for profit generation in farm

Farmers need to be aware of common diseases that affect goats in their area and then follow an appropriate goat disease and treatment vaccination programme.

Vaccination is only possible for certain diseases. With these diseases, you can give the healthy animal an injection that will stop it from contracting a particular disease.

vaccination in goats plays a major role in goat farming all of the profit depends on the herd health if the goat will be healthy than the profit will be more. So on the farm, all the vaccination done on time to time depends on its schedule. All medication should available on the farm every time.

Kid management

kid management in the farm
Kid Management
  • It is important to take good care of kids so as to reduce mortalities and improve kid growth rate.
  • A reduction in kid mortality translates into an increase in flock size and consequently the increase in takeoff in the profit.
  • The kidding area should be clean with dry bedding, The doe may be kept in the kidding area for a few days before kidding.
  • Keep the kid separate from the adult goats.
  • Cut the navel of a kid after birth and apply tincture iodine or potassium permanganate.
  • Feed colostrums to the kid after birth in between 1 hour.
  • spread the lime powder in the kid section every week.
  • Kid section should be hygiene.
  • Place the dry fodder or straw on the floor or bedding of kid so kids can not taste the soil.

Strengths of goat farming

  • Improves biological diversity.
  • Is hundreds-years-old tradition and a culture.
  • Is a chain in natural balance.
  • Goat products are very important for community health.
  • The products obtained from goats contribute on national economy.
  • Goat products are organically popular.
  • Goat milk is the nearest milk to human milk in terms of vitamin and mineral content
  • Is the main nutrition and income source for people living especially near forests and mountain villages
  • They can take advantages of damaged pasture areas because of their superior physical and     grazing talents
  • They eat many silages which other animals don’t eat and transform them into animal products.
  • There is a new structuring hope in goat farming.


  • The increase expectation for the demand for goat milk and products.
  • They decrease the risk of forest fires by controlled grazing implementations.
  • Goat farming is very important for rural development and economic activity diversity.
  • We know that goat milk and products are very beneficial for health.
  • There is an expectation about selling goat milk and products in the future with high prices.
  • it has the potential for organic stock farming.
  • There is cooperation for solving the problem with socio-economical and scientific approaches

Goat Marketing

When one takes goat farming as a business, the major objective is to make a profit. One can make a profit by providing a quality product that meets the market requirements. Therefore in simple terms, marketing is identifying the needs of the customers/ buyers and then supply a product (goats) that meets the required needs in the right quantities at the right time and place.

Understanding goat marketing

  • Buyers require goats of different ages, size, breeds, etc. Some buyers such as the local traders are much concerned about the size while some buyers on festivals (eid, holi, Durga puja) require quality i.e. aggressive, tall good looking buck.
  • Some of the specific goat markets are individual traders, abattoirs, NGOs, ethnic groups and export market.

In the goat business, the products that we can sell to the market are live goats, goat meat, skins, milk, and manure.

  • It is also important for farmers to be able to plan their production so that they consistently supply the required quantities at specified time intervals (e.g. 250 slaughter goats every month). This is key in business as this helps towards building longstanding and mutually beneficial (win-win) relationships with your buyers.
  • When we start our goats to organized high-value markets, we need to plan our production and logistics to meet the market requirements

Read: Profit guide and goat farming project report of (100+4) goats


All Non-vegeterian People know the value of goat meat but before starting commercial goat farming they want to is goat farming profitable business. yes, it is profitable if done in the right way. The Following factors like Goat Housing, Goat Feeding Disease management and other management you have to keep in mind before starting. you can also take the proper Goat Farming training to learn more about goat farming.